Included Literature

  • Food Habits of Habor Seals (Phoca Vitulina Richardii) in San Francisco Bay, California

    The diet of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) in San Francisco Bay (SFB) in California was examined from July 2007 to July 2008 via scat analysis. Scats were collected from five major haul-out sites; 22 species of fish and one species of crustacean were identified from 422 scats. The reliance of a non-native invasive species, Yellowfin Goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus), increased in importance in the diet. Additionally, another non-native invasive fish species, Chameleon Goby (Tridentiger trigonocephalus), was found for the first time in the diet of harbor seals in SFB.

  • Meroplanktonic distribution and circulation in a coastal retention zone of the northern California upwelling system

    Previous studies have shown that settlement of several crab species along the coast north of Point Reyes (38 degrees 00'N, 123 degrees 00'W) occurs primarily during relaxation from upwelling, when warm water flows poleward from the Gulf of the Farallones. During 1994 and 1995 we sampled planktonic larval distributions and hydrography both south and north of Point Reyes during upwelling to test whether high concentrations of crab and rockfish larvae were concentrated in the source of the relaxation flow to the south of Point Reyes.

  • The effects of habitat loss, fragmentation, and community homogenization on resilience in estuaries

    When changes in the frequency and extent of disturbance outstrip the recovery potential of resident communities, the selective removal of species contributes to habitat loss and fragmentation across landscapes. The degree to which habitat change is likely to influence community resilience will depend on metacommunity structure and connectivity. Thus ecological connectivity is central to understanding the potential for cumulative effects to impact upon diversity.

  • Climate change and coastal zone of Bangladesh: vulnerability, resilience and adaptability

    The diversity, frequency, and scale of human impacts on coral reefs are increasing to the extent that reefs are threatened globally. Projected increases in carbon dioxide and temperature over the next 50 years exceed the conditions under which coral reefs have flourished over the past half-million years. However, reefs will change rather than disappear entirely, with some species already showing far greater tolerance to climate change and coral bleaching than others.

  • The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems

    The impact of fishing on chondrichthyan stocks around the world is currently the focus of considerable international concern. Most chondrichthyan populations are of low productivity relative to teleost fishes, a consequence of their different life-history strategies. This is reflected in the poor record of sustainability of target shark fisheries. Most sharks and some batoids are predators at, or near, the top of marine food webs. The effects of fishing are examined at the single-species level and through trophic interactions.

  • Bringing science into river systems cumulative effects practice

    Fast-paced watershed change, driven by anthropogenic development, is threatening the sustainability of freshwater resources across the globe. Developments within watersheds interact in a manner that is additive and synergistic over space and time. Such cumulative environmental effects are defined as the results of actions that are individually minor but collectively significant when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions.

  • Rivets or bolts? When single species count in the function of temperate rocky reef communities

    There is considerable controversy about the role of individual species in ecosystem functioning. Most models stress the role of species richness and diversity in ecosystem function, but it is also recognised that individual species or functionally similar species can play prominent roles in assessments of function. There have been relatively few tests of functional replacement by similar species in the marine environment. On intertidal reef platforms in southern New Zealand, six species of fucoid algae co-occur.

  • The use of Geographical Information Systems for Cumulative Environmental Effects Assessment

    In recognition of the need to develop approaches to environmental impact assessment that are both proactive and which take a wider view of environmental change and its causes, there has been increasing interest in the concept of cumulative environmental change and its assessment. We outline a definition and conceptual framework for the analysis of cumulative environmental change. The contribution of geographical information systems (GIS) to the assessment of cumulative effects is considered.

  • Strategic approaches to regional cumulative effects assessment: a case study of the Great Sand Hills, Canada

    This paper examines the experience with regional cumulative effects assessment (CEA) in the Great Sand Hills, Saskatchewan, Canada, and the lessons that emerge for better practice. The benefits of a regional approach to CEA are widely discusssed; however, in practice, regional CEA, particularly in Canada, has fallen short of its potential. Part of the reason for this, arguably, is the lack of strategic frameworks to support good practice.

  • Keystone predation and interaction strength: Interactive effects of predators on their main prey

    The application of basic ecological concepts to fields of conservation biology and applied environmental sciences is a healthy sign, but before these concepts are widely used, ecology must provide operational definitions and quantifiable methods. Keystone species and interaction strength are concepts with deep practical and theoretical implications. We studied the strength of predation on mussels (Mytilus trossulus) by the keystone seastar Pisaster ochraceus and the whelks Nucella emarginata and N. canaliculata under different environmental conditions in the Oregon intertidal zone.

  • Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly evolving ecological paradigms

    The decline of many coral reef ecosystems in recent decades surprised experienced managers and researchers. It shattered old paradigms that these diverse ecosystems are spatially uniform and temporally stable on the scale of millennia. We now see reefs as heterogeneous, fragile, globally stressed ecosystems structured by strong positive or negative feedback processes. We review the causes and consequences of reef decline and ask whether management practices are addressing the problem at appropriate scales.

  • Evaluating and managing cumulative effects: process and constraints

    Cumulative effects (CEs) result from the combined effect of multiple activities over space or time. This implies a persistence through time and often a transmittal mechanism through space. Environmental legislation often requires a broader CE assessment in addition to the more direct, project-specific impacts. Current efforts to evaluate and manage CEs are hampered by the conceptual problems of defining the key issues, specifying the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and determining the numerous interactions and indirect effects.

  • Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms

    Ocean acidification is a pervasive stressor that could affect many marine organisms and cause profound ecological shifts. A variety of biological responses to ocean acidification have been measured across a range of taxa, but this information exists as case studies and has not been synthesized into meaningful comparisons amongst response variables and functional groups. We used meta-analytic techniques to explore the biological responses to ocean acidification, and found negative effects on survival, calcification, growth and reproduction.

  • Anticipated Effects of Climate Change on Estuarine and Coastal Fisheries

    Although the timing and magnitude of global climate change is in dispute, the possible effects of such change merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramifications and mitigative actions. Climate change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion of marine waters and associated organisms, changes in circulation patterns that affect retention of some indigenous species, and increased hypoxia and storm surges.

  • Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems

    Humans impact natural systems in a multitude of ways, yet the cumulative effect of multiple stressors on ecological communities remains largely unknown. Here we synthesized 171 studies that manipulated two or more stressors in marine and coastal systems and found that cumulative effects in individual studies were additive (26%), synergistic (36%), and antagonistic (38%).

  • Coastal fronts set recruitment and connectivity patterns across multiple taxa

    We show that ocean fronts set recruitment patterns among both community-building invertebrates and commercially important fishes in nearshore intertidal and rocky reef habitats. Chlorophyll concentration and recruitment of several species of intertidal invertebrates (Balanus spp., Chthamalus spp., Mytilus spp.) and rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) are positively correlated with front probability along the coast of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Abundances of recent settlers and adults for nearshore rockfish species are also positively correlated with front probability.

  • Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America

    Our aim in this paper is to present the first broad-scale quantification of species abundance for rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Here we examine the community-level marine biogeographical patterns in the context of formerly described biogeographical regions, and we evaluate the combined effects of geographical distance and environmental conditions on patterns of species similarity across this region. Location Pacific coast of North America.

  • Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling

    A mechanism exists whereby global greenhouse warming could, by inxensifymg the alongshore wind stress on the Ocean surface, lead to acceleration of coastal upwelling. Evidence from several Werent regions suggests that the major coastal upwelling systems of the world have been growing in upwelling intensity as greenhouse gases have accumulated in the earth's atmosphere. Thus the cool foggy summer conditions that typlfy the coastlands of northern California and other similar upwelling regions might, under global warming, become even more pronounced.

  • The identification, conservation, and management of estuarine and marine nurseries for fish and invertebrates

    Nearshore estuarine and marine ecosystems—e.g., seagrass meadows, marshes, and mangrove forests—serve many important functions in coastal waters. Most notably, they have extremely high primary and secondary productivity and support a great abundance and diversity of fish and invertebrates. Because of their effects on the diversity and productivity of macrofauna, these estuarine and marine ecosystems are often referred to as nurseries in numerous papers, textbooks, and government-sponsored reports (Boesch and Turner 1984, NRC 1995, Butler and Jernakoff 1999).

  • Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves

    Several schemes have been developed to help select the locations of marine reserves. All of them combine social, economic, and biological criteria, and few offer any guidance as to how to prioritize among the criteria identified. This can imply that the relative weights given to different criteria are unimportant. Where two sites are of equal value ecologically; then socioeconomic criteria should dominate the choice of which should be protected. However, in many cases, socioeconomic criteria are given equal or greater weight than ecological considerations in the choice of sites.

  • Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements

    The spatial proximity of one habitat to another can strongly influence population and community dynamics We investigated whether the proximity of intertidal oyster reefs to vegetated estuarine habitats, salt marshes, and seagrass beds, affects the abundance and community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates on reefs and predator-prey interactions between mobile predators and bivalves living on reefs. Benthic macroinvertebrate abundance was highest on reefs spatially separated from salt marshes.

  • Thinking and managing outside the box: coalescing connectivity networks to build region-wide resilience in coral reef ecosystems

    As the science of connectivity evolves, so too must the management of coral reefs. It is now clear that the spatial scale of disturbances to coral reef ecosystems is larger and the scale of larval connectivity is smaller than previously thought. This poses a challenge to the current focus of coral reef management, which often centers on the establishment of no-take reserves (NTRs) that in practice are often too small, scattered, or have low stakeholder compliance.

  • The structure and replenishment of rocky shore intertidal communities and biogeographic comparisons

    Marine scientists have made many recent advances in understanding the connections between the structure of benthic communities, replenishment of populations through dispersal processes, and interactions with the nearshore water mass. In this review, some of the themes and models relating to these processes and interactions are discussed. Benthic–pelagic coupling models are in the early stages of development, but encompass oceanic processes such as upwelling and downwelling, the transport of larvae and their arrival back to shore to settle.

  • Larval dispersal, recruitment, and adult distribution of the brooding stony octocoral Heliopora coerulea on Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan

    Larval dispersal and recruitment are important factors that determine the distribution of adult corals. The relationships between larval dispersal, recruitment, and the adult distribution of the blue octocoral, Heliopora coerulea, were investigated on Shiraho Reef, Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan. Heliopora coerulea is a surface brooder that releases planulae in June or July on Shiraho Reef. We observed planulae between 1998 and 2000 and found that they did not swim actively; instead, they crawled into their settlement positions after becoming grounded on the substratum.

  • Long-term trends in the response of benthic macrofauna to climate variability in the Lavaca-Colorado Estuary, Texas

    Long-term trends in the response of benthic macrofauna to hydrological conditions were examined in the Lavaca-Colorado Estuary, Texas. Four stations representing a range of salinities in the Lavaca-Colorado Estuary were sampled quarterly for benthic macrofauna and hydrography from April 1988 to October 2008. The relationship between climate variability and local salinity patterns and benthic populations was investigated using the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and North Pacific Index (NPI). Mean salinity declined during the 20 yr study period.

  • Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises

    All species have evolved in the presence of disturbance, and thus are in a sense matched to the recurrence pattern of the perturbations. Consequently, disturbances within the typical range, even at the extreme of that range as defined by large, infrequent disturbances (LIDs), usually result in little long-term change to the system's fundamental character. We argue that more serious ecological consequences result from compounded perturbations within the normative recovery time of the community in question.

  • Fish fauna in Iberian Mediterranean river basins: biodiversity, introduced species and damming impacts

    1. A basin approximation was used to analyse distribution patterns of different components of biodiversity (taxonomic richness, endemicity, taxonomic singularity, rarity) and conservation status of freshwater fish fauna in 27 Mediterranean Iberian rivers. 2. Basin area alone explained more than 80% of variation in native species richness. Larger basins featured not only a higher number of native species, but also more endemic and rare species and fewer diversified genera than smaller basins. 3.

  • Anthropogenic disturbance on nursery function of estuarine areas for marine species

    Estuaries serve as nursery grounds for many marine fish species. However increasing human activities within estuaries and surrounding areas lead to significant habitat loss for the juveniles and decrease the quality of the remaining habitats. This study is based on the data of 470 beam trawls from surveys that were conducted in 13 French estuaries for the purpose of the European Water Framework Directive. It aimed at testing the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the nursery function of estuaries.

  • Multiple stressor effects identified from species abundance distributions

    The potential for stressors to interact or elicit different responses depending on ecological setting can confound the use of contaminant guidelines or predictions from laboratory-based ecotoxicological studies. However, predicting and identifying multiple stressor effects is challenging because of the wide range of treatment combinations needed for laboratory experiments and the difficulty of conducting field experiments across a range of conditions that may influence stress responses.

  • Interactive and cumulative effects of multiple human stressors in marine systems

    Humans impact natural systems in a multitude of ways, yet the cumulative effect of multiple stressors on ecological communities remains largely unknown. Here we synthesized 171 studies that manipulated two or more stressors in marine and coastal systems and found that cumulative effects in individual studies were additive (26%), synergistic (36%), and antagonistic (38%).

  • Cascading top-down effects of changing oceanic predator abundances

    1 Top-down control can be an important determinant of ecosystem structure and function, but in oceanic ecosystems, where cascading effects of predator depletions, recoveries, and invasions could be significant, such effects had rarely been demonstrated until recently. 2 Here we synthesize the evidence for oceanic top-down control that has emerged over the last decade, focusing on large, high trophic-level predators inhabiting continental shelves, seas, and the open ocean.

  • Population Connectivity in Marine Systems An Overview

    There is growing consensus that life within the world’s ocean is under considerable and increasing stress from human activities (Hutchings, 2000; Jackson et al., 2001). This unprecedented strain on both the structure and function of marine ecosystems has led to calls for new management approaches to counter anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean (Botsford et al., 1997; Browman and Stergiou, 2004: Pikitch et al., 2004). Spatial management, including Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), has been touted as a method for both conserving biodiversity and managing fisheries (Agardy, 1997).